Although antisocial personality disorder—more commonly known as sociopathy—is not diagnosed until adulthood, teenagers may display traits of this condition. Specifically, sociopathic behavior is marked by social deviance, rule-breaking and impulsivity. Sociopathic behavior may include property destruction, lying, deliberating harming others, hurting animals, running away from home or grossly deviating from other social norms, explains the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. These teens may be diagnosed with conduct disorder, a precursor to antisocial personality disorder.
While it is common for teenagers to test rules and rebel against their parents’ and teachers’ expectations, sociopathic behavior is much more extreme. For example, while shoplifting a candy bar at the urging of friends is relatively normal teen behavior, an adolescent who breaks into a home to commit theft, steals expensive items or uses force to take the property of others is displaying sociopathic type behavior.
Although it can be difficult to identify why some teenagers engage in sociopathic behaviors, a history of childhood abuse or neglect are common contributors. Likewise, if a teen had poor or insecure attachments to his parents or early caregivers, this may give rise to sociopathic behaviors. In other cases, biological factors, including chemical imbalances in the brain, can contribute to antisocial actions.
When addressed early, teens with conduct disorder or lesser sociopathic type behaviors may go on to lead healthy, pro-social lives. Treatment will generally involve targeted psychotherapy. For teens with sociopathic traits, counseling will usually involve several components, including helping the teen develop impulse control, emotional regulation skills, empathy and self-awareness. Additionally, teens with sociopathic traits often benefit from group therapy with other teens, which can improve their social skills. Finally, many teens with sociopathic behaviors can benefit from psychotropic medications, which can help them regulate their moods, anxiety and impulses.
Although sociopathic behavior in teens is treated primarily through individual therapy, it is important for the adolescent’s parents and caregivers to play an active role in the adolescent's healing. Because environment can have a strong effect on a teen’s behavior, parents or guardians can facilitate more effective treatment by providing a home that is conducive to healthy behavior. For teens with sociopathic traits, this involves clear boundaries and structured activities. Therapists may also suggest limiting the teen’s exposure to violent media and changes to his or her diet, explains David C. Rettew, M.D., Director of the Pediatric Psychiatry Clinic of the University of Vermont College of Medicine.
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